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Saturday, September 29, 2012

The formation of the United Nations.

The United Nations began with the London Declaration of June 12, 1941, when various nationalities had a sense of purpose struggling against a common enemy: Hitler's Germany. They declared that "the only true basis of enduring peace is the willing cooperation of free peoples in a world in which, relieved of the menace of aggression, all may enjoy economic and social security." Signing the London Declaration on June 12, 1941 were Britain, Canada, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa and the exiled governments of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia. Charles deGaulle, in exile from France, also signed.
The United States was not yet in the war. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union and after the U.S. entered World War II, the above powers were joined by the U.S. and the Soviet Union in what was called the "Declaration by United Nations," signed in Washington on January 1, 1942. Each government pledged "to employ its full resources, military or economic" to defeat Germany, Japan and Italy. They agreed not to make a separate peace with the enemy. A number of Latin American nations joined the group, as did Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Egypt and some smaller African states.
At their Teheran conference in late 1943, Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt discussed the possibility of a United Nations trusteeship for France's colony of Indochina (including Vietnam).  The Indochinese were to be included among the "free peoples" spoken of in the London declaration but after a wait of twenty or thirty years. In deference to Churchill a UN trusteeship for India was not discussed.  
In his campaign for re-election in 1944, Roosevelt argued that the United Nations had to be able to commit people to military action, "to keep the peace by force, if necessary" rather than wait for consultations, discussions and debates. He likened the latter to a local police force calling a town meeting before stopping a burglary. "It is clear," he said, "that if the world organization is to have any reality at all, our American representative must be endowed in advance by the people themselves, by constitutional means through their representatives in the Congress, with authority to act."
Beginning in September 1944, at the Dumbarton Oaks mansion in Washington D.C., representatives of the Soviet Union, Britain, the U.S. and China agreed on the structure of the UN. The purpose of the United Nations, it was declared, would be:
1. To maintain international peace and security; and to that end to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace and the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means adjustment or settlement of international disputes which may lead to a breach of the peace;
2. To develop friendly relations among nations and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
3. To achieve international cooperation in the solution of international economic, social and other humanitarian problems; and
4. To afford a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the achievement of these common ends.
The principles by which this was to be realized were:
1. The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving states.
2. All members of the Organization undertake, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership in the Organization, to fulfill the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the Charter.
3. All members of the Organization shall settle their disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security are not endangered.
At the Yalta conference in February 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin -- the Big Three -- declared their resolve to establish the UN, with Roosevelt and Churchill both agreeing that the Ukraine and Byelorussia (republics within the Soviet Union) would be separate member states with their own vote. The Big Three agreed to the time and place of a founding meeting of the United Nations and that the UN would be led or dominated by the five major allied powers as permanent members of a Security Council -- the U.S., Soviet Union, Britain, China, and France. The question arose about some Latin American nations joining. Stalin asked how the Soviet Union could build world security with nations that had been hostile to the Soviet Union. Churchill commented about nations that had been waiting "to see who would win," and Roosevelt apologized to Stalin for having prematurely promised these nations UN membership. He added that he was doing what he could to encourage them to declare war on Germany and that they could help write the UN Charter and become initial members when they signed the UN declaration. Stalin agreed. The question arose of a conference to discuss "territorial trusteeship and dependent areas" -- in other words colonialism. Churchill became enraged, stating that as long as he was Prime Minister he would "not yield one scrap" of Britain's heritage. He was placated when the U.S. Secretary of State, Edward Stettinius, showed him a report stating that the United States opposed putting any colony into an arrangement without the consent of the colonial power involved.

The conference for founding the U.N. began in April, 1945, at San Francisco. President Roosevelt died in April, and in May tensions arose between the Soviet Union and Roosevelt's successor, Harry Truman. Truman had lived through some failed idealisms and had his doubts about the United Nations, but he wanted to adhere to Roosevelt's legacy. He did not want a return to the isolationism that had followed World War I, and he was committed to maintaining the U.S. as a player in the new internationalism. Another founding conference for the United Nations was scheduled to meet in San Francisco, and Truman said the U.S. would proceed with that conference and that if his criticism of the Soviet Union regarding Poland upset the Russians then they "could go to hell." On May 12, 1945, Truman stopped the aid called Lend Lease to the Soviet Union, but he wanted to continue working with the Soviet Union within the United Nations for the sake of peace and order.
A survey in May indicated that 40 percent of the American people doubted the conference in San Francisco would succeed. Those believing that the UN could prevent war within the coming fifty years had dropped from 49 to 32 percent. And those who believed the U.S. should join the UN was at 85 percent.
At San Francisco, delegates from fifty nations hammered out an agreement, creating the UN Charter. The Charter declared against wars of aggression and against wars that violated international agreements. The Charter declared against war crimes and crimes against humanity: genocide, enslavement, deportation and other inhumane acts. Articles 42 and 43 authorized the use of armed force to maintain international peace and security. Article 51 acknowledged the right of members to join together for self-defense -- an issue in support of regionalism that had been advocated by Latin American countries that feared the spread of communism. Articles 55 and 56 required that "all members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action" to promote "universal respect for, and observance and protection of, all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all."
The charter envisaged the regular military force available to the Security Council that had been advocated by Roosevelt. The Charter could be amended by a two-thirds majority vote in the UN's General Assembly. The General Assembly was to be a place for discussion and the making of "recommendations"  regarding the maintenance of international peace and security. Responsibility to implementation was to be with the Security Council. And members of the United Nations were required to pay dues.
The United Nations sought collective agreement, but on the Security Council national sovereignty was reinforced by a requirement of unanimity -- first agreed to at the Yalta Conference. Any one Security Council member could veto a decision made by other members of council. This was a provision insisted upon by the Soviet Union, which wanted protection from the capitalist powers ganging up against it. The other Security Council members were concerned about their own sovereignty and accepted it as a worthy idea. That it weakened United Nations was also accepted. Sovereignty was most important to them.
The UN was to be administered by a Secretary General, appointed by the General Assembly on recommendation of the Security Council, for a term of five years. He was to sit in on sessions of the General Assembly and to be able to bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion threatened international peace and security.
Ceremonies for the signing of the UN Charter took place at San Francisco on June 26. President Truman flew in and spoke to the gathering, saying that he would use the United Nations as a central instrument in foreign policy. He renounced great-power dominations. Strong nations, he said, should lead the way to international justice "by their own example." Let us not fail to grasp "this supreme chance," he said, "to establish a worldwide rule of reason." Ratification of the Charter by member nations was completed on October 24, 1945, and October 24 was designated as United Nations Day.
In November, a UN General Conference in London created the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Its constitution claimed that "...since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defenses of peace must be constructed." It described World War II as having been "made possible by the denial of the democratic principles of the dignity, equality and mutual respect of men, and by the propagation, in their place, through ignorance and prejudice, of the doctrine of the inequality of men and races." The solution, according to the document was education.
Members of the Security Council failed to agree concerning the creation of a regular armed force for the UN, and no such force was created. The sense of urgency and common purpose that had existed in 1941 in Europe had slackened during the peace that followed the war in Europe.

Friday, September 28, 2012

Beyond Obamacare [former Obama official says we NEED death panels]

Beyond Obamacare [former Obama official says we NEED death panels]
The New York Times ^ | September 16, 2012 | Steven Rattner
Posted on Wednesday, September 26, 2012 9:16:09 AM by ConjunctionJunction
WE need death panels. Well, maybe not death panels, exactly, but unless we start allocating health care resources more prudently — rationing, by its proper name — the exploding cost of Medicare will swamp the federal budget. But in the pantheon of toxic issues — the famous “third rails” of American politics — none stands taller than overtly acknowledging that elderly Americans are not entitled to every conceivable medical procedure or pharmaceutical. Most notably, President Obama’s estimable Affordable Care Act regrettably includes severe restrictions on any reduction in Medicare services or increase in fees to beneficiaries. In 2009, Sarah Palin’s rant about death panels even forced elimination from the bill of a provision to offer end-of-life consultations. Now, three years on, the Republican vice-presidential nominee, Paul D. Ryan, has offered his latest ambitious plan for addressing the Medicare problem. But like Mr. Obama’s, it holds limited promise for containing the program’s escalating costs within sensible boundaries. The Obama and Ryan plans are not without common ground; both propose an identical formula for capping the growth in Medicare spending per beneficiary. And both dip into the same toolbox (particularly lower payments to providers) to achieve a reduction of nearly $1 trillion in Medicare expenditures over the next decade from projected levels. That’s where the agreement ends. Mr. Ryan believes that meeting the goal over the long term requires introducing more competition into Medicare through vouchers to purchase private insurance.
(Excerpt) Read more at ...

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

The depth of knowledge of Obama supporters‏

Howard Stern contributors Sal and Richard travel to Harlem to interview Obama supporters and ask them why they are voting for Obama. They did this back in 2008, now let's see what happens when they do it again in 2012! 

Sunday, September 23, 2012


Genesis 18:20-23

King James Version (KJV)
20 And the Lord said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grievous;
21 I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it, which is come unto me; and if not, I will know.
22 And the men turned their faces from thence, and went toward Sodom: but Abraham stood yet before the Lord.
23 And Abraham drew near, and said, Wilt thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked?

An omniscient god really has to go down to earth and check it out?

Interesting word combinations.

One argument I often hear from Christians is that the bible is full of information that could not have been known at an earlier point of time and that is a proof of god. The following are a series of word combinations that can be re-arranged to mean something else. It is doubtful when the words were created that it was known in advance what these other combinations might be. However, that is the basis of the argument that Christians try to use about the bible. 

When you rearrange the letters:

When you rearrange the letters:

When you rearrange the letters:

When you rearrange the letters: 


When you rearrange the letters: 

When you rearrange the letters:

When you rearrange the letters:
When you rearrange the letters: 
When you rearrange the letters:
When you rearrange the letters: 
When you rearrange the letters: 
When you rearrange the letters:
When you rearrange the letters: 
When you rearrange the letters: 

When you rearrange the letters: 

Saturday, September 22, 2012

"Scientific" Facts in the Bible

This was a post that was sent to me recently. My answers are at the end of the supposed facts in the bible. 

1. Only in recent years 
has science discovered that everything we see is composed 
of invisible atoms. Here, Scripture tells us that the 
"things which are seen were not made of things 
which do appear." 

2. Medical science has only 
recently discovered that blood-clotting in a newborn 
reaches its peak on the eighth day, then drops. The 
Bible consistently says that a baby must be circumcised 
on the eighth day. 

3. At a time when it was 
believed that the earth sat on a large animal or a giant 
(1500 B.C.), the Bible spoke of the earth’s free 
float in space: "He...hangs the earth upon nothing" 
(Job 26:7).

4. The prophet Isaiah also 
tells us that the earth is round: "It is he that 
sits upon the circle of the earth" (Isaiah 40:22). 
This is not a reference to a flat disk, as some skeptic 
maintain, but to a sphere. Secular man discovered this 
2,400 years later. At a time when science believed that 
the earth was flat, is was the Scriptures that inspired 
Christopher Columbus to sail around the world (see Proverbs 
3:6 footnote). 

5. God told Job in 1500 
B.C.: "Can you send lightnings, that they may go, 
and say to you, Here we are?" (Job 38:35). The 
Bible here is making what appears to be a scientifically 
ludicrous statement—that light can be sent, and 
then manifest itself in speech. But did you know that 
radio waves travel at the speed of light? This is why 
you can have instantaneous wireless communication with 
someone on the other side of the earth. Science didn’t 
discover this until 1864 when "British scientist 
James Clerk Maxwell suggested that electricity and light 
waves were two forms of the same thing" (Modern 
Century Illustrated Encyclopedia).

6. Job 38:19 asks, "Where 
is the way where light dwells?" Modern man has 
only recently discovered that light (electromagnetic 
radiation) has a "way," traveling at 186,000 
miles per second.

7. Science has discovered 
that stars emit radio waves, which are received on earth 
as a high pitch. God mentioned this in Job 38:7: "When 
the morning stars sang together..." 

8. "Most cosmologists 
(scientists who study the structures and evolution of 
the universe) agree that the Genesis account of creation, 
in imagining an initial void, may be uncannily close 
to the truth" (Time, Dec. 1976). 

9. Solomon described a "cycle" 
of air currents two thousand years before scientists 
"discovered" them. "The wind goes toward 
the south, and turns about unto the north; it whirls 
about continually, and the wind returns again according 
to his circuits" (Ecclesiastes 1:6). 

10. Science expresses the 
universe in five terms: time, space, matter, power, 
and motion. Genesis 1:1,2 revealed such truths to the 
Hebrews in 1450 B.C.: "In the beginning [time] 
God created [power] the heaven [space] and the earth 
[matter] . . . And the Spirit of God moved [motion] 
upon the face of the waters." The first thing God 
tells man is that He controls of all aspects of the 

11. The great biological 
truth concerning the importance of blood in our body’s 
mechanism has been fully comprehended only in recent 
years. Up until 120 years ago, sick people were "bled," 
and many died because of the practice. If you lose your 
blood, you lose your life. Yet Leviticus 17:11, written 
3,000 years ago, declared that blood is the source of 
life: "For the life of the flesh is in the blood." 

12. All things were made 
by Him (see John 1:3), including dinosaurs. Why then 
did the dinosaur disappear? The answer may be in Job 
40:15–24. In this passage, God speaks about a 
great creature called "behemoth." Some commentators 
think this was a hippopotamus. However, the hippo’s 
tail isn’t like a large tree, but a small twig. 
Following are the characteristics of this huge animal: 
It was the largest of all the creatures God made; was 
plant-eating (herbivorous); had its strength in its 
hips and a tail like a large tree. It had very strong 
bones, lived among the trees, drank massive amounts 
of water, and was not disturbed by a raging river. He 
appears impervious to attack because his nose could 
pierce through snares, but Scripture says, "He 
that made him can make his sword to approach unto him." 
In other words, God caused this, the largest of all 
the creatures He had made, to become extinct. 

13. Encyclopedia Britannica 
documents that in 1845, a young doctor in Vienna named 
Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis was horrified at the terrible death 
rate of women who gave birth in hospitals. As many as 
30 percent died after giving birth. Semmelweis noted 
that doctors would examine the bodies of patients who 
died, then, without washing their hands, go straight 
to the next ward and examine expectant mothers. This 
was their normal practice, because the presence of microscopic 
diseases was unknown. Semmelweis insisted that doctors 
wash their hands before examinations, and the death 
rate immediately dropped to 2 percent. Look at the specific 
instructions God gave His people for when they encounter 
disease: "And when he that has an issue is cleansed 
of his issue; then he shall number to himself even days 
for his cleansing, and wash his clothes, and bathe his 
flesh in running water, and shall be clean" (Leviticus 
15:13). Until recent years, doctors washed their hands 
in a bowl of water, leaving invisible germs on their 
hands. However, the Bible says specifically to wash 
hands under "running water." 

14. Luke 17:34–36 
says the Second Coming of Jesus Christ will occur while 
some are asleep at night and others are working at daytime 
activities in the field. This is a clear indication 
of a revolving earth, with day and night at the same 

15. "During the 
devastating Black Death of the fourteenth century, patients 
who were sick or dead were kept in the same rooms as 
the rest of the family. People often wondered why the 
disease was affecting so many people at one time. They 
attributed these epidemics to ‘bad air’ 
or ‘evil spirits.’ However, careful attention 
to the medical commands of God as revealed in Leviticus 
would have saved untold millions of lives. Arturo Castiglione 
wrote about the overwhelming importance of this biblical 
medical law: ‘The laws against leprosyin Leviticus 
13 may be regarded as the first model of sanitary legislation’ 
(A History of Medicine)." Grant R. Jeffery, The 
Signature of God With all these truths revealed in Scripture,how 
could a thinking person deny that the Bible is supernatural 
in origin? There is no other book in any of the world’s 
religions (Vedas, Bhagavad-Gita, Koran, Book of Mormon, 
etc.) that contains scientific truth. In fact, they 
contain statements that are clearly unscientific. Hank 
Hanegraaff said, "Faith in Christ is not some blind 
leap into a dark chasm, but a faith based on established 
evidence." (11:3 continued)

1. The verse you quote is referring to the word of god as what is unseen, not atoms.

2. Which is more likely?  That God magically transmitted the message that baby boys should not be circumcised before eight days.  Or, that it was learned the hard way that whacking off the ends of the penises of boys younger than eight days causes them to bleed to death.  There is nothing here that could not have discovered by trial and error. And the real story is that cutting off part of the penis does little good and actually causes many problems. The AMA does not endorse circumcision

3. The earth is not hanging on nothing. It is orbiting the sun at 66,700 miles per hour. 

4. A circle is not a sphere. A circle is flat. And that is why they believed that Satan could take Jesus to a high mountain and show him the entire world, which is impossible on a sphere, but conceivable, although still unrealistic,  if the world is flat. 

5. However, radio waves do not manifest themselves as light. Your attempt to tie these two concepts together is silly. 

6. Speed is not a location. 


What does one hear from a radio wave?

Actually, nothing! While everyday experience and Hollywood movies make people think of sounds when they see the words "radio telescope," radio astronomers do not actually listen to noises.
First, sound and radio waves are different phenomena. Sound consists of pressure variations in matter, such as air or water. Sound will not travel through a vacuum. Radio waves, like visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays, are electromagnetic waves that do travel through a vacuum. When you turn on a radio you hear sounds because the transmitter at the radio station has converted the sound waves into electromagnetic waves, which are then encoded onto an electromagnetic wave in the radio frequency range (generally in the range of 500-1600 kHz for AM stations, or 86-107 MHz for FM stations). Radio electromagnetic waves are used because they can travel very large distances through the atmosphere without being greatly attenuated due to scattering or absorption. Your radio receives the radio waves, decodes this information, and uses a speaker to change it back into a sound wave.
8. Oh please, a 36 year article hardly reflects the current view that science holds about the formation of the universe. 

9. Umm, no. Air constantly moves over the face of the Earth in currents. These currents are caused by temperature differences on the surface of the planet caused by the sun. Earth's weather results from the interactions of warm and cold air currents.

Solar influence

Air currents move from areas of high pressure to low pressure. The sun causes differences in pressure by heating air. When air is heated, it rises, creating an area of low pressure. The heated air cools as it rises higher into the atmosphere. The cooling air falls back to Earth. This cycle creates air currents.

High and low pressure

As heated air rises, fewer air molecules are present. Air pressure goes down. The air pressure of surrounding cooler areas is higher because there are more air molecules present. Air then moves to the area of low pressure until the pressures are the same.

Equatorial heating

The sun shines most powerfully on the Earth's equator. The energy from the sun causes the air at the equator to become hot. The hot air rises, causing low pressure at the equator. Air from the cooler poles moves toward the warmer equator to equalize the pressure difference. Air currents form every day moving toward the equator.

By the sea

Air currents change direction by day and night around oceans and seas. During the day, the sun heats the ground, making the air above the ground warmer and creating low pressure over land. An air current develops from the cooler ocean, where there is higher pressure. In the evening, the land cools while the ocean retains heat. The warmer ocean air rises, causing air currents to come off the land toward the sea.


Air currents can move extremely fast. Air current speeds increase when there is a large difference in temperature. If the area of low pressure is very hot, the air will rise faster, causing air currents to be pulled in faster. This results in high wind speeds. Large differences in temperature can result in damaging winds

Read more: How do air currents form? | Answerbag

10. Arbitrarily assigning scientific meanings to words in ancient documents does not automatically lend any scientific credibility to the stories they tell.  One can play the same word game with a number of ancient creation stories.  Consider the following from a part of a Chinese creation story:
In the beginning (time), the heavens and earth were still one and all was chaos.  The universe was like a big black egg, carrying Pan Gu inside itself.  After 18 thousand years Pan Gu woke from a long sleep.  He felt suffocated, so he took up a broadax and wielded it with all his might (power) to crack open the egg.  The light, clear part of it floated up (motion) and formed the heavens (space), the cold, turbid matter stayed below to form earth (matter).
I have inserted the words "time," "power," "motion," "space," and "matter" using the same logic (or lack thereof) that you used in your example above.  Does this lend any scientific credibility to the creation story of Pan Gu?

11. Leviticus 17:11 is referring to the need for a sacrifice, not that blood is critical to the health of someone. Besides, after observing numerous animals die as a consequence of losing substantial amounts of blood, it is hardly surprising that man should have been able to make the obvious connection that blood is somehow related to the maintenance of life.  The animal is wounded, the blood drains out, and the animal dies. Therefore, blood is somehow involved in keeping animals alive.  Again, there is nothing indicative of supernaturally transmitted wisdom here.

12. First off, there were thousands of different dinosaurs that were of many different shapes and sizes. Second, there is nothing in the verse that suggests that every behemoth was killed off. That is quite a stretch on your part. Third, the bible makes other references to imaginary creatures. The behemoth could certainly be made up. Much of the bible is simply made up. 

13. Let us look at that verse more closely. "And when he that has an issue is cleansed of his issue; then he shall number to himself even days 
for his cleansing, and wash his clothes, and bathe his 
flesh in running water, and shall be clean" . 14 And on the eighth day he shall take to him two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, and come before the Lord unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and give them unto the priest:

15 And the priest shall offer them, the one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him before the Lord for his issue.

Odd that you left out the critical part of sacrificing birds and the ceremonial aspects as part of this sound medical procedure. 

14. It was not uncommon for people to travel to different countries at that period of time. And when they did, they would have noticed that there was a difference in when people worked and slept. This is the same nonsensical book that claimed that god stopped the sun from moving across the heavens so that the day could be longer. 

15. It is a religion that attempts to stretch fables into something more, which is common for all religions. 

Wednesday, September 19, 2012

Obama In 1998: "I Actually Believe In Redistribution"

Obama telling the Russians he will have more flexibility after the elections

ABC’s Jake Tapper has a stunning report out of Seoul, South Korea this morning. According to him, President Obama was caught on a hot mic telling outgoing Russian President Dmitri Medvedev that if given “space,” he’ll have more flexibility “after my election.”
Here’s how Tapper puts it:
At the tail end of his 90 minute meeting with Russian President Dmitri Medvedev Monday, President Obama said that he would have “more flexibility” to deal with controversial issues such as missile defense, but incoming Russian President Vladimir Putin needs to give him “space.”
The exchange was picked up by microphones as reporters were let into the room for remarks by the two leaders.
And here’s the exchange:
President Obama: On all these issues, but particularly missile defense, this, this can be solved but it’s important for him to give me space.
President Medvedev: Yeah, I understand. I understand your message about space. Space for you…
President Obama: This is my last election. After my election I have more flexibility.
President Medvedev: I understand. I will transmit this information to Vladimir.
You can hear the comments below:

A senior administration official tried to brush it aside in a statement to ABC: “this is a political year in which the Russians just had an election, we’re about to have a presidential and congressional elections — this is not the kind of year in which we’re going to resolve incredibly complicated issue like this. So there’s an advantage to pulling back and letting the technical experts work on this as the president has been saying.”

Tuesday, September 18, 2012

The Big Crunch - rebirth of a universe.

Tie one end of a bungee cord to your leg, the other end to the rail of a bridge and then jump off. You'll accelerate downward rapidly until you begin to stretch the cord. As tension increases, the cord gradually slows your descent. Eventually, you'll come to a complete stop, but just for a second as the cord, stretched to its limit, yanks you back toward the bridge. Astronomers think a closed universe will behave in much the same way. Its expansion will slow down until it reaches a maximum size. Then it will recoil, collapsing back on itself. As it does, the universe will become denser and hotter until it ends in an infinitely hot, infinitely dense singularity.
A closed universe will lead to a big crunch -- the opposite of the big bang. But what are the odds that a closed universe is more probable than an open or flat universe? Astronomers are beginning to come up with some educated guesses.
To determine if the universe will expand forever, coast to a stop or collapse on itself, astronomers must decide which of two opposing forces will win a cosmic tug-of-war. One of these forces is the bang part of the big bang -- the explosion that catapulted the universe outward in all directions. The other force is gravity, the pull one object exerts on another. If the gravity within the universe is strong enough, it could reign in the expansion and cause the universe to contract. If not, the universe will continue to expand forever.
But let's imagine for a ­moment th­at the density of the universe is above the critical value required to stop expansion. This would lead to the big crunch, which in many ways would be like hitting the rewind button on a VCR. As gravity within the universe pulled everything back, galaxy clusters would draw closer together. Then individual galaxies would begin to merge until, after billions of years, one mega-galaxy would form.
Inside this gigantic cauldron, stars would meld together, causing all of space to become hotter than the sun. Eventually, stars would explode and black holes would emerge, slowly at first and then more rapidly. As the end drew near, the black holes would suck up everything around them. Even they would coalesce at some point to form a monstrous black hole that would pull the universe closed like a drawstring bag. At the end, nothing would remain but a super-hot, super-dense singularity -- the seed of another universe. Many astronomers think the seed would germinate in a "big bounce," starting the whole process over again.